These are the most common lab tests performed in medical settings. They involve analyzing a sample of blood to detect the presence of certain substances, such as glucose, cholesterol, or hormones, HIV, anemia, cancer, coronary heart disease.

Types of Blood Tests

  • Complete Blood Count (CBC): This test measures the number of red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets in the blood. It can help diagnose anemia, infections, and blood disorders.
Component Normal Range
Red Blood Cells (RBCs): Cells responsible for carrying oxygen throughout the body4.3 : 5.9 million/mm3 for males
3.5 : 5.5 million/mm3 for females
White Blood Cells (WBCs): Immune system cells in the blood4,500 : 11,000/mm3
Platelets: The substances that control the clotting of the blood150,000 : 400,000/mm3
Hemoglobin: Protein within the red blood cells that carries oxygen to organs and tissues, and carbon dioxide back to the lungs      13.5 : 17.5 grams/deciliter (g/dL) for males
12.0 : 16.0 g/dL for females
Hematocrit: Percentage of blood made of red blood cells41 : 53% for males
36 : 46% for females
  • Basic Metabolic Panel (BMP): This test measures levels of electrolytes, glucose, and kidney function markers in the blood. It can help diagnose kidney disease, diabetes, and other metabolic disorders.
TestHealthy RangeCategory
BUN : Blood Urea Nitrogen6 : 20 mg/dlKidney Test
Creatinine0.6 : 1.3 mg/dlKidney Test
Glucose70 : 100 mg/dlSugar Metabolism
Ca+8.5 : 10.2 mg/dlElectrolyte Panel
Na+135 : 145 mg/dlElectrolyte Panel
K+3.7 : 5.2 mg/dlElectrolyte Panel
Cl96 : 106 mEq/lElectrolyte Panel
  • Comprehensive Metabolic Panel (CMP): A comprehensive metabolic panel (CMP) includes all the measurements of a BMP as well as additional proteins and substances related to liver function.
Test Normal Range
Albumin3.4 : 5.4 g/dl (34 : 54 g/l)
Total Protein6.0 : 8.3 g/dl (60 : 83 g/l)
Alkaline Phosphatase20 : 130 U/L
ALT : Alanine Aminotransferase4 : 36  U/L
AST : Aspartate Aminotransferase8 : 33  U/L
Total Bilirubin0.1 : 1.2 mg/dl ( 2 to 21 µmol/L)
  • Lipid Panel: This test measures levels of cholesterol, triglycerides, and other types of fats in the blood. It can help assess the risk of heart disease and stroke.
Component High Low/Optimal
HDL (high-density lipoprotein)< 60 g/dl<40 mg/dl for males
<50 mg/dl for females
LDL< 160 mg/dl100 mg/dl
  • Thyroid Panel: A thyroid panel, or thyroid function test, checks how well your thyroid is producing and reacting to certain hormones.
TestNormal Range
T380 : 180 nanograms per deciliter of blood (ng/dL)
T40.8 : 1.8 ng/dl in adult
TSH0.5 : 4 mille-international units per liter of blood (mIU/L)
  • Cardiac Biomarkers: Enzymes are proteins that help your body accomplish certain chemical processes, such as breaking down food and clotting blood.
Test Normal Range
CK
Creatine Kinase in the Blood
30 : 200 U/L
CK-MB
Isoenzyme of Creatine Kinase in the Blood
0 : 12 IU/l
Troponin< 1 ng/ml
  • Sexually Transmitted Infection (STIs) Tests: Many sexually transmitted infections (STIs) can be diagnosed using a blood sample. These tests are often combined with urine samples or swabs of infected tissue for more accurate diagnoses.
  • Coagulation Panel: Coagulation tests measure how well your blood clots and how long it takes for your blood to clot. Examples include the prothrombin time (PT) test and fibrinogen activity test.
Test Normal Range
PT
A Prothrombin Time
11  : 13.5 seconds
PTT
A Partial Thromboplastin Time
25  : 35    seconds
INR
The International Normalised Ratio
0.8 : 1.1   seconds
  • DHEA-Sulfate Serum Test: The dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) hormone comes from your adrenal glands. This test measures whether it’s too high or too low.
In Men : Age Normal Range
Of The Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) Hormone
18 : 19108 : 441    mcg/dl
20 : 29280 : 640    mcg/dl
30 : 39120 : 520    mcg/dl
40 : 4995   : 530    mcg/dl
50 : 5970   : 310    mcg/dl
60 : 6942   : 290    mcg/dl
69 and older28   : 175    mcg/dl
In Women : Age Normal Range
Of The Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) Hormone
18 : 19145 : 395    mcg/dl
20 : 2965   : 380    mcg/dl
30 : 3945   : 270    mcg/dl
40 : 4932   : 240    mcg/dl
50 : 5926   : 200    mcg/dl
60 : 6913   : 130    mcg/dl
69 and older17   : 90      mcg/dl
  • C-Reactive Protein Test: C-reactive protein (CRP) is made by your liver when tissues in your body are inflamed.
< 0.3 mg/dLNormal Range
0.3 : 1.0 mg/dLMinor elevation can be associated with a person’s sex, body mass index (BMI), or with conditions like depression or insomnia.
1.0 : 10.0 mg/dLModerate elevation usually caused by systemic inflammation, such as from an autoimmune disease, bronchitis, heart attack, or cancer.
> 10.0 mg/dLMarked elevation typically caused by a serious bacterial or viral infection, major trauma, or systemic vasculitis.
> 50.0 mg/dLSevere elevation usually caused by an acute bacterial infection.

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