Generic Name : Aztreonam.

Trade Name     : Azactam.

Drug Class       : Monobactam (Miscellaneous Antibiotics).

Forms of The Drug

  1. Powder for Injection: 1g, 2g.
  2. Inhalation Solution: 75mg.
  3. Powder for Inhalation.
  4. Intravenous Solution.
  5. Intramuscular Injection.

Mechanism of Action

Aztreonam binds to and inhibits the activity of an enzyme called penicillin-binding protein (PBP), which is responsible for cross-linking the peptidoglycan chains in the bacterial cell wall. Without proper cross-linking of the cell wall, the bacteria become weakened and are unable to maintain their structural integrity, ultimately leading to cell death. Aztreonam is highly specific for certain types of bacteria, including gram-negative bacteria such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Haemophilus influenzae, and Enterobacteriaceae.

Indication

Aztreonam for Injection is indicated for the treatment of the following infections caused by susceptible gram-negative microorganisms.

  1. Urinary tract infections.
  2. Lower respiratory tract infections such as pneumonia, bronchitis, and other infections that affect the lungs.
  3. Septicemia.
  4. Skin and skin-structure Infections including cellulitis and wound infections.
  5. Intra-abdominal Infections.
  6. Treat infections of the female reproductive system including pelvic inflammatory disease.
  7. Indicated for adjunctive therapy to surgery in the management of infections caused by susceptible organisms, including abscesses, perforations, cutaneous infections.

Contraindications

  1. Hypersensitivity to aztreonam or other its component.
  2. Diarrhea from an infection with Clostridium difficile bacteria.
  3. Liver problems.
  4. Decreased kidney function.
  5. Hyperbilirubinemia or neonatal jaundice.

Side Effects

  1. Cough (54%).
  2. Sore throat (12%).
  3. Wheezing (16%).
  4. Fever (13%).
  5. Pain at injection site (12%; children); (2%; adults).
  6. Chest discomfort (8%).
  7. Abdominal pain (7%).
  8. Vomiting (6%).
  9. Rash (4%).
  10. Thrombocytopenia (4% children) (<1% adults).
  11. Bronchospasm (3%).

Drug Interaction

Aztreonam has serious interactions with the following drugs.

  1. BCG vaccine.
  2. Cholera vaccine.
  3. Cefoxitin.
  4. Imipenem.
  5. Aminoglycoside antibiotics like gentamicin.
  6. Probenecid
  7. Diuretics such as furosemide.
  8. Warfarin.
  9. Oral contraceptives.

Precautions

  1. Pregnancy: Category B.
  2. Lactation: Drug is excreted in milk in low concentrations but is unlikely to harm a nursing infant.

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