Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a common lung disease causing restricted airflow and breathing problems. It is sometimes called emphysema or chronic bronchitis. Nearly 90% of COPD deaths in those under 70 years of age occur in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). COPD is the seventh leading cause of poor health worldwide (measured by disability-adjusted life years).


Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, or COPD, is a chronic respiratory condition that affects the lungs. It is characterized by persistent obstruction of the airflow in the lungs, which makes it difficult for individuals to breathe. COPD is a progressive disease, meaning it gradually worsens over time, and it is typically caused by long-term exposure to irritants such as cigarette smoke, air pollution, and chemical fumes.


The pathophysiology of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is complex and involves several different mechanisms that contribute to the development and progression of the disease. The following are the main pathophysiological processes involved in COPD:

  1. Chronic Inflammation: Chronic exposure to irritants leads to a chronic inflammatory response in the lungs, which can result in damage to the airways and alveoli. The inflammatory response is characterized by the activation of immune cells and the release of cytokines and other inflammatory mediators.
  2. Airway Remodeling: In response to chronic inflammation, the airways can become narrowed and thickened, reducing airflow and making it more difficult to breathe. This process is known as airway remodeling and can be irreversible in severe cases.
  3. Mucus Production: Chronic inflammation can also stimulate the production of mucus in the airways, which can further narrow the airways and make it more difficult to breathe.
  4. Alveolar Damage: Long-term exposure to irritants can also cause damage to the walls of the alveoli in the lungs, reducing the surface area available for gas exchange and making it more difficult for the lungs to efficiently transfer oxygen into the bloodstream.
  5. Loss of Elastic Recoil: The walls of the alveoli contain elastic fibers that help them to expand and contract during breathing. In COPD, the loss of elastic recoil in the lungs can make it more difficult to exhale and can lead to air trapping in the lungs.
  6. Pulmonary Hypertension: In severe cases of COPD, the increased resistance to blood flow through the lungs can lead to pulmonary hypertension, which can further exacerbate the symptoms of the disease.


  1. Cigarette Smoking: Cigarette smoke is the most significant risk factor for COPD, accounting for around 80% of cases. The harmful chemicals in cigarette smoke can cause inflammation and damage to the airways and alveoli in the lungs, leading to COPD.
  2. Air Pollution: Exposure to outdoor air pollution, such as particulate matter, can also contribute to the development of COPD. Indoor air pollution, such as from cooking with solid fuels, can also be a risk factor.
  3. Occupational Exposure: Exposure to dust, fumes, and chemicals in the workplace can also cause COPD, particularly in occupations such as mining, farming, and construction.
  4. Genetic Factors: A rare genetic condition called alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency can also increase the risk of developing COPD. This condition affects the production of a protein that protects the lungs from damage.
  5. Respiratory Infections: Repeated respiratory infections, particularly in childhood, can also increase the risk of developing COPD later in life.
  6. Asthma: Individuals with poorly controlled asthma are at a higher risk of developing COPD due to the ongoing inflammation and damage to the airways.

Risk Factors

The following are some of the main risk factors associated with the development of COPD:

  1. Cigarette smoking: It is estimated that around 80% of COPD cases are caused by smoking.
  2. Air Pollution: Air pollution such as particulate matter and ozone. Indoor air pollution, such as from cooking with solid fuels.
  3. Occupational exposure particularly in occupations such as mining, farming, and construction.
  4. Genetic Factors: A rare genetic condition called alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency can increase the risk of developing COPD.
  5. Age as the majority of COPD cases occur in individuals over the age of 40.
  6. Sex: Women may be more susceptible to COPD than men.
  7. Repeated Infections: Repeated respiratory infections particularly in childhood.
  8. Asthma: People with asthma are at a higher risk of developing COPD.

Signs & Symptoms

The signs and symptoms of COPD can vary from person to person, but generally include:

  1. Chronic Cough: A persistent cough that produces mucus is a common symptom of COPD. This cough may be worse in the morning or during physical activity.
  2. Shortness of Breath.
  3. Wheezing: Wheezing is a high-pitched whistling sound that occurs when air flows through narrowed airways.
  4. Chest Tightness: Chest tightness or discomfort is another common symptom of COPD.
  5. Fatigue.
  6. Reduced Exercise Tolerance.
  7. Frequent Respiratory Infections: such as pneumonia and bronchitis.
  8. Bluish Lips or Fingernail Beds: due to a lack of oxygen in the bloodstream.
  9. Unintended Weight Loss: due to the increased effort required to breathe.


There are two main types of COPD: chronic bronchitis and emphysema. In some cases, people may have a combination of both types.

  1. Chronic Bronchitis: Chronic bronchitis is a type of COPD that causes inflammation and narrowing of the bronchial tubes. People with chronic bronchitis have a persistent cough with mucus production that lasts for at least three months per year, for two consecutive years. The excessive mucus production in the airways makes it difficult to breathe, leading to wheezing and shortness of breath.
  2. Emphysema: Emphysema is a type of COPD that causes damage to the air sacs (alveoli) in the lungs. This damage reduces the surface area of the lungs available for gas exchange, making it difficult to get enough oxygen into the bloodstream. People with emphysema often have a chronic cough, wheezing, and shortness of breath, especially during physical activity.
  3. Combination of Chronic Bronchitis and Emphysema: Many people with COPD have a combination of chronic bronchitis and emphysema. This type of COPD is often referred to as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or COPD with chronic bronchitis and emphysema. People with this type of COPD may have chronic bronchitis symptoms, such as a persistent cough with mucus production, as well as emphysema symptoms, such as difficulty breathing during physical activity.
  4. Asthma-COPD Overlap Syndrome (ACOS): Some people may have both asthma and COPD, known as asthma-COPD overlap syndrome (ACOS). ACOS is a combination of features of both asthma and COPD, including inflammation, airflow limitation, and respiratory symptoms such as wheezing, coughing, and shortness of breath.


  1. Medical History: The healthcare provider will ask about the symptoms, medical history, smoking history, and exposure to environmental irritants, such as air pollution or dust.
  2. Physical Examination: The healthcare provider will listen to the lungs with a stethoscope and look for signs of respiratory distress, such as wheezing, coughing, or shortness of breath.
  3. Pulmonary Function Tests (PFTs): PFTs are a series of breathing tests that measure how well the lungs are working. They are often used to diagnose and monitor COPD. The two most common PFTs are spirometry and lung volume testing.
  4. Chest X-ray or CT Scan: Imaging tests, such as a chest X-ray or CT scan, can help identify any abnormalities in the lungs, such as inflammation or damage to lung tissue.
  5. Arterial Blood Gas (ABG) Test: An ABG test measures the amount of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood. This test can help determine how well the lungs are functioning and if there is a lack of oxygen in the blood.
  6. Laboratory Tests: Laboratory tests, such as blood tests, may be used to rule out other conditions that can cause similar symptoms, such as anemia or heart failure.
  7. Bronchoscopy: In some cases, a bronchoscopy may be necessary to examine the airways and lungs. During this procedure, a thin, flexible tube is inserted through the nose or mouth and into the lungs to look for signs of inflammation or other abnormalities.


There are several treatments available to manage the symptoms and slow down the progression of the disease.

  1. Medications: Medications such as Bronchodilators are medications that help to relax the muscles around the airways, making it easier to breathe. Inhaled corticosteroids are another type of medication that can help to reduce inflammation in the airways. Combination inhalers that contain both bronchodilators and corticosteroids are also available.
  2. Oxygen Therapy: Oxygen can be delivered through a nasal cannula or mask, and can help to improve breathing and reduce the risk of complications.
  3. Pulmonary Rehabilitation: This may involve breathing exercises, aerobic and strength training, and education on how to manage symptoms and prevent complications.
  4. Surgery: This may include lung volume reduction surgery, where damaged lung tissue is removed to improve lung function, or lung transplantation, where a diseased lung is replaced with a healthy donor lung.
  5. Lifestyle Changes: This may include quitting smoking, avoiding exposure to air pollution and other lung irritants, eating a healthy diet, and getting regular exercise.


  • Respiratory Complications
    1. Respiratory Infections: People with COPD are at increased risk of developing respiratory infections, such as pneumonia and bronchitis, which can exacerbate COPD symptoms and lead to hospitalization.
    2. Pulmonary Hypertension: COPD can cause the blood vessels in the lungs to narrow and become less elastic, which can lead to high blood pressure in the lungs (pulmonary hypertension). This can strain the heart and lead to heart failure.
    3. Respiratory Failure: In severe cases, COPD can cause respiratory failure, which occurs when the lungs are no longer able to provide enough oxygen to the body.
  • Non-Respiratory Complications
    1. Cardiovascular Disease: COPD increases the risk of developing cardiovascular diseases, such as heart attacks and strokes, due to the strain that the condition places on the heart and blood vessels.
    2. Osteoporosis: COPD can cause the bones to become weaker and more brittle, increasing the risk of fractures.
    3. Depression and Anxiety: COPD can significantly impact a person’s quality of life, leading to depression and anxiety.
    4. Sleep Disorders: COPD can cause sleep disturbances, such as insomnia and sleep apnea, due to breathing difficulties during sleep.


  1. Quit Smoking: The most important thing that can be done to prevent COPD is to quit smoking. Smoking is the leading cause of COPD and quitting smoking at any age can significantly reduce the risk of developing the disease.
  2. Avoid Exposure to Lung Irritants: Avoiding exposure to lung irritants, such as air pollution, dust, and chemicals, can also help to prevent COPD. Wearing a mask or respirator when working with these irritants can help to reduce exposure.
  3. Get Vaccinated: Vaccination such as pneumonia and influenza.
  4. Exercise Regularly: Regular exercise can help to improve lung function and reduce the risk of developing COPD. It is recommended to aim for at least 30 minutes of moderate-intensity exercise on most days of the week.
  5. Maintain a Healthy Diet: Eating a healthy diet can also help to prevent COPD by maintaining a healthy weight and providing the body with the nutrients it needs to function properly.
  6. Screen for Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency: Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency is a rare genetic disorder that can increase the risk of developing COPD, and can be identified through a simple blood test. Screening for this deficiency can help to identify people at risk and take preventive measures.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *