Generic Name  : Ceftriaxone.

Trade Name      : Ceftriaxone / Cefaxone.

Drug Class        : Third Generation Cephalosporins.

Forms of The Drug

  1. Injection: 250mg, 500mg, 1g, 2g.
  2. Pre-mixed solution for injection.
  3. Oral suspension.

Mechanism of action

It has efficacy against gram-positive organisms and is effective against resistant organisms, where the drug interferes with the synthesis of peptidoglycan (the main structural component of the bacterial cell wall), which leads to the death of the bacteria at the end due to the continued activity of endogenous enzymes, which inhibits the synthesis of the cell wall.

Indications

  1. Given before certain types of surgery to prevent infections.
  2. Lower respiratory tract infections including pneumonia and bronchitis.
  3. Urinary tract infections including bladder and kidney infections.
  4. Skin and soft tissue infections including cellulitis, abscesses, and wound infections.
  5. Meningitis.
  6. Gonorrhea.
  7. Septicemia.

Contraindications

  1. Diarrhea from an infection with Clostridium difficile bacteria.
  2. Hemolytic anemia.
  3. Liver problems.
  4. Disease of the gallbladder.
  5. Severe renal impairment.
  6. Hyperbilirubinemia in neonates.
  7. Calcium-containing IV solutions.

Side Effects

  1. Induration after IM injection (5-17%).
  2. Eosinophilia (6%).
  3. Thrombocytosis (5%).
  4. Diarrhea (3%).
  5. Elevated hepatic transaminases (3%).
  6. Leukopenia (2%).
  7. Rash (2%).
  8. Increased blood urea nitrogen (BUN) (1%).
  9. Induration at IV site (1%).
  10. Pain (1%).

Drug Interaction

Interaction occurs when it is given with certain drugs.

  1. Albuterol.
  2. Aspirin.
  3. Azithromycin.
  4. Doxycycline.
  5. Flagyl.
  6. Furosemide ( Lasix).
  7. Calcium-containing solutions
  8. Warfarin and other oral anticoagulants
  9. Probenecid
  10. Aminoglycosides

Precautions

  1. For pregnancy: Category B.
  2. For lactation: ceftriaxone is present in human milk but there are no data on effects of drug on breastfeed child or on milk production.
  3. A sensitivity test should be done for the cefatriaxone injection before taking it, because it caused the death of many cases because this test was not performed.

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