Generic Name : Naproxen.

Trade Name    : Naprofen, Aleve.

Drug Class      : NSAIDs.

Source            : Propionic Acid Derivatives.

Classification :  Non-Selective COX Inhibitors.

Forms of The Drug

  1. Tablet: 220mg, 250mg, 275mg, 375mg, 500mg, 550mg.
  2. Capsule: 220mg.
  3. Oral Suspension: 25mg/Ml.

Mechanism of Action

Naproxen works by inhibiting both COX-1 and COX-2 enzymes, although it exhibits a greater affinity for COX-1. By inhibiting COX enzymes, naproxen reduces the production of prostaglandins. This leads to several therapeutic effects:

  1. Analgesic Effect: Naproxen reduces pain by inhibiting the production of prostaglandins, which are known to sensitize pain receptors and promote inflammation. By decreasing prostaglandin synthesis, naproxen helps to alleviate pain.
  2. Anti-Inflammatory Effect: Inflammatory responses are associated with increased prostaglandin production, particularly through the action of COX-2. Naproxen’s inhibition of COX-2 helps reduce inflammation by limiting the production of pro-inflammatory prostaglandins.
  3. Antipyretic Effect: Prostaglandins are also involved in the regulation of body temperature. By inhibiting prostaglandin synthesis, naproxen can help reduce fever.

Indications

  1. Pain relief such as headaches, dental pain, menstrual cramps, muscle aches, backaches, and joint pain caused by conditions like arthritis.
  2. Inflammatory conditions such as osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, gout, and other inflammatory joint diseases.
  3. Fever reduction.
  4. Dysmenorrhea.
  5. Migraine.
  6. Bursitis and tendonitis.

Contraindications

  1. Hypersensitivity.
  2. Aspirin triad.
  3. History of gastrointestinal bleeding or ulceration.
  4. Severe renal impairment.
  5. Severe liver impairment.
  6. Third trimester of pregnancy.

Side Effects

  1. Abdominal pain (3-9%)
  2. Constipation (3-9%)
  3. Dizziness (3-9%)
  4. Drowsiness (3-9%)
  5. Headache (3-9%)
  6. Heartburn (3-9%)
  7. Nausea (3-9%)
  8. Edema (3-9%)
  9. GI bleeding (1-4%)
  10. GI perforation (1-4%)
  11. Lightneadedness (<3%)
  12. GI ulcers (1-4%)
  13. Fluid retention (3-9%)
  14. Diarrhea (1-3%)
  15. Stomatitis (<3%)
  16. Diverticulitis (1-3%)
  17. Dyspnea (3-9%)
  18. Hearing disturbances (<3%)

Drug Interaction

Other drugs that can interact with it.

  1. Other NSAIDs.
  2. Aspirin.
  3. Anticoagulants and antiplatelet agents.
  4. Corticosteroids.
  5. Lithium.
  6. Methotrexate.
  7. Diuretics and Antihypertensive Medications: Diuretics (e.g., furosemide) and antihypertensive medications (e.g., ACE inhibitors, beta-blockers).

Precautions

  1. Pregnancy: Category C
  2. Lactation: Naproxen is known to pass into breast milk, and its use during lactation is generally not recommended unless specifically prescribed by a healthcare professional.

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