It is a chronic disease associated with severe, life-impacting pain during periods, sexual intercourse, bowel movements and/or urination, chronic pelvic pain, abdominal bloating, nausea, fatigue, and sometimes depression, anxiety, and infertility. Endometriosis affects roughly 10% (190 million) of reproductive age women and girls globally. There is currently no known cure for endometriosis and treatment is usually aimed at controlling symptoms. Access to early diagnosis and effective treatment of endometriosis is important, but is limited in many settings, including in low- and middle-income countries.


Endometriosis is a chronic medical condition that primarily affects women of reproductive age. It occurs when the tissue lining the uterus, known as the endometrium, grows outside the uterus, typically in the pelvic region. This misplaced tissue can develop on various organs, such as the ovaries, fallopian tubes, bowel, or bladder, and in rare cases, it may spread to other parts of the body.


The pathophysiology of endometriosis involves complex mechanisms that are not fully understood. However, several theories have been proposed to explain the development and progression of this condition. Mechanisms include:

  1. Retrograde Menstruation: One of the most widely accepted theories is retrograde menstruation. During menstruation, some of the menstrual blood, which contains endometrial cells, flows backward through the fallopian tubes and into the pelvic cavity instead of being expelled from the body. These endometrial cells can then implant and grow in the pelvic region, leading to the formation of endometriotic lesions.
  2. Transformation of Coelomic Epithelium: Another theory suggests that endometriosis may arise from the transformation of the coelomic epithelium, the cells that line the abdominal and pelvic cavities. It is proposed that these cells undergo changes, acquiring the ability to invade and grow as endometrial-like tissue in ectopic locations.
  3. Lymphatic or Vascular Spread: Endometrial cells can potentially spread through the lymphatic or vascular system to distant organs and tissues, contributing to the formation of endometriotic lesions in various locations outside the pelvic region.


  1. Retrograde Menstruation: Retrograde menstruation is considered one of the leading theories for the development of endometriosis. It occurs when some of the menstrual blood, which contains endometrial cells, flows backward through the fallopian tubes and into the pelvic cavity instead of being expelled from the body. These displaced endometrial cells can implant and grow in various pelvic locations, leading to the formation of endometriotic lesions.
  2. Genetic Factors: There appears to be a genetic component to endometriosis, as the condition tends to run in families. Women with close relatives (such as mothers or sisters) who have endometriosis are at a higher risk of developing the condition themselves. Specific gene mutations or variations may contribute to the susceptibility to endometriosis, but the exact genes involved are still being investigated.
  3. Hormonal Imbalances: Hormonal imbalances, particularly involving estrogen, are believed to play a role in endometriosis. Estrogen promotes the growth and proliferation of the endometrium, and ectopic endometrial tissue outside the uterus remains responsive to hormonal fluctuations. This responsiveness can lead to the excessive growth, inflammation, and formation of endometriotic lesions.
  4. Immune System Dysfunction: Dysregulation of the immune system has been proposed as a potential cause of endometriosis. In a normal immune response, immune cells identify and eliminate abnormal cells, including endometrial cells outside the uterus. However, in women with endometriosis, the immune system may fail to recognize and clear these ectopic cells, allowing them to implant and grow.
  5. Metaplasia: Metaplasia refers to the transformation of one type of tissue into another. It has been suggested that certain cells in the pelvic region, such as the peritoneum or the lining of the fallopian tubes, may undergo metaplasia and transform into endometrial-like tissue. This transformed tissue can then develop into endometriotic lesions.
  6. Environmental Factors: Some environmental factors may influence the development of endometriosis, although more research is needed to establish their exact role. Exposure to certain chemicals, toxins, or pollutants may potentially increase the risk of developing endometriosis or exacerbate its symptoms. Additionally, lifestyle factors such as diet and exercise may also play a role, although the evidence is still limited.

Risk Factors

  1. Family History: Having a close relative, such as a mother, sister, or aunt, with endometriosis increases the risk of developing the condition. Genetic factors may play a role in predisposing individuals to endometriosis.
  2. Retrograde Menstruation: Retrograde menstruation, where menstrual blood flows back into the pelvic cavity instead of leaving the body, is considered a significant risk factor for endometriosis. If a woman experiences frequent or prolonged retrograde menstruation, the chances of endometrial tissue implanting and growing in the pelvic region increase.
  3. Early Age at Menarche: Beginning menstruation at an early age (before 11 years old) has been associated with a higher risk of developing endometriosis. The reasons for this correlation are not yet fully understood, but it may be related to a longer duration of menstrual cycles and increased exposure to estrogen.
  4. Short Menstrual Cycles: Women with shorter menstrual cycles (less than 27 days) may have a higher risk of endometriosis. The shorter cycle allows for more frequent hormonal changes and menstrual shedding, potentially increasing the chances of retrograde menstruation and endometrial implantation.
  5. Prolonged Menstrual Flow: Longer and heavier menstrual periods are associated with an increased risk of endometriosis. The prolonged shedding of the endometrium during menstruation may facilitate the migration of endometrial cells into the pelvic cavity.
  6. Structural Abnormalities: Structural abnormalities in the reproductive organs, such as a tilted uterus or an obstruction in the cervix or vagina, may contribute to the development of endometriosis by interfering with the normal flow of menstrual blood.
  7. Hormonal Imbalances: Certain hormonal conditions, such as estrogen dominance or an imbalance between estrogen and progesterone, may increase the risk of endometriosis. These hormonal imbalances can disrupt the normal growth and shedding of the endometrial tissue.
  8. Reproductive History: Women who have never been pregnant or have had difficulties conceiving (infertility) may have a higher risk of endometriosis. The exact relationship between endometriosis and infertility is complex and not fully understood.

Signs & Symptoms

  1. Pelvic Pain: Pelvic pain is one of the hallmark symptoms of endometriosis. The pain may vary in intensity, duration, and location. It can be a chronic, dull, and aching pain that radiates to the lower back and thighs. The severity of the pain may not always correlate with the extent of the disease.
  2. Painful Menstruation (Dysmenorrhea): Many women with endometriosis experience severe menstrual cramps that may begin a few days before menstruation and persist throughout the menstrual period. The pain can be debilitating, making it difficult to carry out daily activities.
  3. Painful Intercourse (Dyspareunia): Endometriosis can cause pain during sexual intercourse. The pain may be deep, sharp, or aching and can occur during or after intercourse. This symptom can affect a woman’s sexual and emotional well-being.
  4. Heavy or Irregular Menstrual Bleeding: Endometriosis can lead to abnormally heavy or prolonged menstrual periods. Some women may also experience irregular bleeding, such as spotting between periods.
  5. Chronic Pelvic Pain: In addition to pain during menstruation and intercourse, endometriosis can cause chronic pelvic pain that persists throughout the menstrual cycle. The pain may worsen over time and can interfere with daily activities and quality of life.
  6. Gastrointestinal Symptoms: Endometriosis involving the bowel can cause gastrointestinal symptoms such as bloating, abdominal cramping, diarrhea, constipation, and nausea, particularly during menstruation.
  7. Fatigue and Low Energy: Chronic pain and hormonal imbalances associated with endometriosis can contribute to fatigue, exhaustion, and a general lack of energy.
  8. Infertility or Difficulty Conceiving: Endometriosis can affect fertility by interfering with the function of the reproductive organs, disrupting the normal menstrual cycle, and causing inflammation and scarring. Some women with endometriosis may experience difficulty conceiving or require fertility treatments.


  1. Superficial Endometriosis: This is the most common type of endometriosis and involves the superficial layers of the pelvic peritoneum. The endometrial implants are small and shallow, typically measuring less than 5 mm in depth. Superficial endometriosis often affects the ovaries, fallopian tubes, and the outer layer of the pelvic organs.
  2. Ovarian Endometriosis: Ovarian endometriosis, also known as endometrioma or chocolate cyst, occurs when endometrial tissue forms cysts within the ovaries. These cysts are filled with old blood, giving them a dark, chocolate-like appearance. Ovarian endometriosis can cause pain and may affect ovarian function.
  3. Deep Infiltrating Endometriosis (DIE): Deep infiltrating endometriosis is characterized by the invasion of endometrial tissue into the deeper layers of the pelvic organs. The lesions can penetrate several centimeters into the affected tissues, such as the bowel, bladder, rectovaginal septum (the space between the rectum and vagina), or the pelvic sidewall. DIE is associated with more severe symptoms, including chronic pelvic pain, pain during sexual intercourse, and bowel or bladder dysfunction.
  4. Adenomyosis: Adenomyosis is a specific type of endometriosis in which the endometrial tissue grows into the muscular wall of the uterus (myometrium). This condition causes the uterus to become enlarged, tender, and often associated with heavy and painful menstrual periods. Adenomyosis is not considered a separate disease from endometriosis but rather a subtype that specifically affects the uterine muscle.
  5. Extragenital Endometriosis: While endometriosis typically affects the pelvic region, it can occasionally occur in other parts of the body, a condition known as extragenital endometriosis. This rare form of endometriosis can involve areas such as the abdominal wall, surgical scars, lungs, diaphragm, and other distant sites. The symptoms and management of extragenital endometriosis can vary depending on the specific location involved.


  1. Medical History: The healthcare provider will discuss the individual’s symptoms, including the nature, duration, and severity of pain, as well as any menstrual irregularities or associated symptoms. A detailed medical history helps in assessing the likelihood of endometriosis and ruling out other possible causes of symptoms.
  2. Pelvic Examination: During a pelvic examination, the healthcare provider may manually palpate the pelvic organs to check for any abnormalities or tenderness. However, it is important to note that endometriosis lesions are often not palpable during a routine examination.
  3. Imaging Studies: Ultrasound imaging, such as transvaginal ultrasound, may be performed to visualize the pelvic organs and detect any ovarian cysts or other abnormalities that may suggest endometriosis. However, ultrasound alone cannot definitively diagnose endometriosis, as the lesions may not be visible or may be mistaken for other conditions.
  4. Laparoscopy: Laparoscopy is considered the gold standard for diagnosing endometriosis. It is a minimally invasive surgical procedure performed under general anesthesia. A small incision is made near the navel, and a thin, lighted instrument called a laparoscope is inserted into the abdomen to visualize the pelvic organs. The laparoscope allows the surgeon to directly see and identify endometriotic lesions, adhesions, and other abnormalities. Tissue samples (biopsies) may be taken during laparoscopy for further examination to confirm the presence of endometriosis.
  5. Symptom-Based Diagnosis: In some cases, when symptoms are highly suggestive of endometriosis and imaging studies do not provide a definitive diagnosis, a healthcare provider may make a clinical diagnosis of endometriosis based on symptomatology. However, this approach may not be conclusive, and laparoscopy may still be recommended for confirmation.


  1. Pain Medications: Over-the-counter nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), such as ibuprofen or naproxen, can help relieve mild to moderate pain associated with endometriosis. Prescription-strength pain medications may be necessary for more severe pain.
  2. Hormonal Therapies: Hormonal therapies aim to suppress or regulate the hormonal fluctuations that drive the growth of endometrial tissue. Options include:
    • Oral Contraceptives: Combination birth control pills containing estrogen and progestin can help regulate the menstrual cycle, reduce pain, and slow the growth of endometrial tissue.
    • Progestins: Progestin-only medications, such as medroxyprogesterone acetate or norethindrone, can be used to suppress the growth of endometrial tissue and alleviate symptoms.
    • Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone (GnRH) Agonists and Antagonists: These medications work by suppressing the production of estrogen, inducing a temporary menopause-like state. GnRH agonists, such as leuprolide or goserelin, are usually prescribed for a limited period due to side effects, and add-back therapy (estrogen and progestin) may be recommended to mitigate bone density loss.
    • Danazol: Danazol is a synthetic hormone that suppresses estrogen and progesterone production, leading to atrophy of the endometrial tissue. It is less commonly used today due to potential side effects.
  3. Surgical Interventions
    • Laparoscopic Surgery: Laparoscopy is performed to visualize the pelvic organs and confirm the presence of endometriosis. During surgery, the endometrial implants, adhesions, and cysts can be removed or destroyed through techniques such as excision or ablation.
    • Hysterectomy: In severe cases or when other treatments have been ineffective, a hysterectomy (removal of the uterus) may be considered. This procedure is usually accompanied by the removal of the ovaries (oophorectomy) to induce a permanent menopause-like state.
    • Fertility Treatment: For individuals trying to conceive, fertility treatments, such as in vitro fertilization (IVF), may be recommended. IVF involves fertilizing eggs in a laboratory and transferring the resulting embryos into the uterus.
  4. Complementary Therapies: Some individuals find relief from complementary therapies such as acupuncture, pelvic physical therapy, dietary changes, and stress management techniques. While these therapies may help manage symptoms, they are not considered primary treatments for endometriosis.


  1. Chronic Pelvic Pain: The most common complication of endometriosis is chronic pelvic pain. The persistent pain can significantly impact an individual’s quality of life, causing physical discomfort, emotional distress, and limitations in daily activities.
  2. Infertility: Endometriosis can cause fertility problems. The presence of endometrial implants, adhesions, and inflammation in the pelvic area can interfere with the normal functioning of the reproductive organs, including the ovaries, fallopian tubes, and uterus. This can make it more challenging for the sperm to reach the egg or for a fertilized egg to implant and develop in the uterus.
  3. Ovarian Cysts: Endometriomas, also known as ovarian cysts or chocolate cysts, are fluid-filled cysts that form on the ovaries due to the accumulation of endometrial tissue. These cysts can cause pain, discomfort, and may affect ovarian function.
  4. Adhesions and Scar Tissue: The presence of endometriosis can lead to the formation of adhesions, which are abnormal bands of scar tissue that can bind organs together. Adhesions can cause organs to stick to one another, leading to pain, bowel or bladder dysfunction, and potential complications during surgical procedures.
  5. Bowel and Bladder Problems: Endometriosis involving the bowel or bladder can cause symptoms such as pain during bowel movements or urination, urinary urgency or frequency, constipation, diarrhea, or blood in the urine or stool.
  6. Intestinal Obstruction or Blockage: In rare cases, severe endometriosis involving the bowel can lead to intestinal obstruction or blockage. This can cause severe abdominal pain, bloating, nausea, and vomiting, requiring immediate medical attention.
  7. Interstitial Cystitis: Endometriosis can contribute to the development of interstitial cystitis, a chronic condition characterized by bladder inflammation and pelvic pain. The symptoms of interstitial cystitis can overlap with those of endometriosis, further complicating diagnosis and management.
  8. Impact on Mental Health: Living with chronic pain and fertility challenges can take a toll on mental health and well-being. Endometriosis is associated with increased rates of anxiety, depression, and decreased quality of life.


At present, there is no surefire way to prevent endometriosis. However, there are certain measures that may potentially lower the risk or delay the onset of the condition.

  1. Early Detection and Treatment: Being aware of the symptoms of endometriosis and seeking medical attention promptly can help with early detection and treatment. Early diagnosis allows for timely management and may help prevent the progression of the condition and the development of complications.
  2. Hormonal Birth Control: The use of hormonal birth control methods, such as combined oral contraceptives (containing estrogen and progestin), progestin-only pills, hormonal patches, or hormonal intrauterine devices (IUDs), may help regulate menstrual cycles and potentially reduce the risk of endometriosis. However, it is important to note that the decision to use hormonal birth control should be discussed with a healthcare professional, considering individual health factors and preferences.
  3. Pregnancy and Breastfeeding: Some studies suggest that pregnancy and breastfeeding may have a protective effect against endometriosis. The hormonal changes during pregnancy and the temporary suppression of ovulation that occurs during breastfeeding may provide some relief from endometriosis symptoms. However, it is essential to make decisions about pregnancy and breastfeeding based on personal circumstances and preferences.
  4. Exercise and Healthy Lifestyle: Engaging in regular physical activity and maintaining a healthy lifestyle, including a balanced diet and managing stress levels, may contribute to overall well-being. While these measures have not been definitively proven to prevent endometriosis, they can support general health and potentially reduce inflammation, which may have a positive impact.
  5. Environmental Factors: Some research suggests a possible association between endometriosis and exposure to environmental toxins and chemicals. Although further studies are needed to establish a clear link, it may be prudent to minimize exposure to potentially harmful substances in the environment, such as certain pesticides, dioxins, and bisphenol A (BPA). Choosing organic food, using safe household cleaning products, and avoiding unnecessary exposure to chemicals may be beneficial.

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